Search pages
Skip Navigation LinksHomeAbout usNews & Insights Skip Navigation Links首页关于我们新闻和洞见
02/02/20212021/02/02

Develop beginning-teacher knowledge in a partnership setting with university通过学校与高校的合作建立新教师的“知识库”

Understanding The Complexities of Developing Beginning-Teacher Knowledge in a Partnership Setting

More and more bilingual schools have established partnerships with universities in order to create or improve their initial teachers training system. We hope this article from Dr Brian Marsh can help teachers and school leaders to understand the complexities of the partnership and use the resources in a more efficient way. 

Written by | Dr Brian Marsh

Edited by|BISE

The foundation for career-long learning is established during the earliest stages of a teacher’s career. Beginning teachers need to acquire knowledge, skills and understanding as well as learn how to critically evaluate and improve their own practice during the period of initial teacher education. Stürmer et al. (2012) indicate that beginning-teacher education programmes should both equip beginning teachers with a declarative knowledge base about effective teaching and support them in applying that knowledge in classroom situations. However, problem of what beginning teachers need to know raises a number of issues and questions like: 

what should comprise the specific content of beginning-teacher learning?

In teacher education there is more urgency about ‘what to do’ than about ‘why’ beginning teachers should do it (Ovens, 2000). One significant consequence is that beginning teachers look for immediate and pragmatic solutions. Nevertheless, Alsop et al. (2005) argue that locating the specifics of teaching within some broader theoretical framework should be fundamental to the development of teachers. National policy in England (DfE, 2011) looks at knowledge and expertise in terms of competence and capability within the classroom. While this acknowledges subject and pedagogical knowledge, it omits consideration of the place of educational theory. The content of what beginning teachers should learn is contentious and policy-driven.

Teachers require a vast range of things they should both know and be able to do in order to undertake their work (Darling-Hammond, 2006). This was outlined in a framework of knowledge, skills and dispositions (Bransford et al., 2005):

 

Commenting on this framework, Burn et al. (2015) write:

"the range of different aspects that each dimension encompasses and the complex interplay between them make the prospect of trying to get to grips with them a formidable undertaking."

At the heart of the debate are questions about the nature of knowledge and the effects of different kinds of knowledge on teachers and teaching (Loughran, 2006). Part of the debate surrounds the relationship, and perceived value, of the formal knowledge of teaching (often seen as the province of a Higher Education Institute, HEI) and the practical knowledge of teaching (as created by teachers through their classroom experiences). Teachers in schools put forward their everyday practice and demonstrate the complex and usually tacit knowledge that informs it; but it is also important to note that an appropriate knowledge base off acts, principles and experience is essential for underpinning and justifying the choices and actions they are making.

A useful conceptualisation of teacher knowledge is that originally developed by Shulman (1986). He recognised was that if teachers are to be effective practitioners, they need both an in-depth knowledge of their subject and a comprehensive knowledge and understanding of how to represent this subject knowledge to learners. Shulman (1987) went on to describe seven categories in what he calls a teachers’ knowledge bases:

1. Content knowledge;

2. General pedagogic knowledge;

3. Curriculum knowledge;

4. Pedagogical content knowledge;

5. Knowledge about the learners;

6. Knowledge of educational contexts;

7. Knowledge of educational ends, purposes and values.

Although conceptualisation of this has evolved since Shulman first articulated this framework, see e.g. Gess-Newsome (2015), one benefit of Shulman’s (1987)thinking is that it offers an opportunity to identify those aspects of knowledge required by a teacher, particularly pedagogical content knowledge. It begins to outline those factors that teachers need to develop. Pedagogical content knowledge incorporates how teachers interpret and transform subject knowledge in the context of supporting pupil learning (Van Driel et al., 1998). It encompasses an understanding of common learning difficulties and pupil misconceptions. Subject content knowledge is brought to the classroom, whereas pedagogic content knowledge is developed and learned from classroom experience. The two interact and inform each other.

Pedagogical content knowledge is what allows for the meaningful blending of content and pedagogy for teaching. (Segall, 2004)

Initially beginning teachers have very limited pedagogical knowledge but rapidly acquire it. They do so through observation and discussion of other teachers’ practices (Hagger and McIntyre, 2006), collaborative planning and teaching, and focussed support and evaluative feedback on their planning and teaching from teachers in their placement school (Burn, 2007b). Early-career professional learning is characterised by the accumulation of experience, although not all of itis consciously processed. Moreover, as pedagogical knowledge increases, so does the understanding of subject content knowledge (Wellington and Ireson, 2008).The usefulness of this framework is that it begins to outline those factors that teachers need to develop.

Whilst there is no universally accepted consensus about which knowledge components are included, the notion of pedagogical content knowledge provides a valuable framework for the discussion of teachers’ knowledge and their decision-making because it focuses attention on subject-specific knowledge, as well as other categories of knowledge used by teachers (Burn, 2007a, Segall, 2004, Burn, 2007b).

However, there are difficulties for trainees seeking to develop pedagogical content knowledge:

1. Kerfoot (2009), for example, suggests that pedagogical content knowledge is the most demanding to acquire and is only developed over a period of years;

2. Loughran et al. (2004) note that it is a difficult process to both recognise and articulate. It is an internal construct that is complex and tacit, and time is rarely provided in schools for discussions that enable teachers to describe their tacit professional knowledge in articulated forms;

3. Carlsen (2010), building on Shulman’s work, suggests that these domains of teacher knowledge support consideration of questions such as: ‘How might a Biology teacher’s knowledge differ from that of a biologist?’

4. Shulman fails to identify which aspects of a teacher’s knowledge base are codified and which are implicit.

5. The knowledge bases are not stand-alone dimensions – they are complex and deeply interrelated.

6. PCK is an integrative framework – it doesn’t distinguish which teacher knowledge base or component of a teacher knowledge base is best suited for being developed in an HEI setting or in school.

Although Shulman’s (1987) typology is useful in identifying those components that comprise a teacher’s knowledge base, he does not comment upon either how that knowledge is acquired or where it is acquired. Hall and Andriani (2003) suggest that tacit knowledge is acquired by experience, the knowledge of what works, and is characterised by causal ambiguity. Eraut (2007) argues that there is a large tacit dimension in professional knowledge, which includes routines and understanding the situation, both in preparation and when responding to classroom events.

新教师在职业伊始难免有些手足无措。而很多学校都与高校合作,借助高校的课程和资源帮助新教师成长,建立自己的“知识库”。而如何更好的使用高校的教育资源呢?相信白金汉大学的 Brian Marsh博士的这篇专为新教师写的文章一定会让你有所收获。

作者 | Dr Brian Marsh

编辑|BISE

职业生涯长期学习的基础是在教师职业生涯的早期阶段建立起来的。最初两年的教师发展方案格外重要。说到新老师的知识库,你想到的是不是充分的学科知识?或者再加上一些日常教学技巧,比如常备零食、了解安全出口、与学生约定‘敲黑板’时必须抬头的课堂提示语?然而,‘知识库’的概念要远远大过这些。

新教师在接受培训的过程中,不仅需要获得知识、技能和理解,还需要学会如何批判性地评估和改进自己的教学实践。有学者(Stürmer等人,2012)指出,新教师培训应为他们提供关于有效教学的陈述性知识库,并帮助他们在课堂情境中灵活运用这些知识技能。所以,好的教师发展项目,大多是面向在职教师,让他们有机会在教学环境中实践和尝试自己学到的理论。这也是为何白金汉大学的IPGCE/PGCE项目都要求申请人保证每周10小时的独立教学时间。

再来看学校如何帮助新教师搭建“知识库”,首先要考虑以下两点:

1. 知识库具体内容有哪些?

2. 如何才能有效地传达这些内容来尽可能支持新教师今后的发展?

在新教师培训中,“做什么”比“为什么这样做”更重要(Ovens,2000),这个理念会为新教师直接提供务实的解决方案。最直接的方式莫过于课堂观摩,但是观摩之后要有反思过程,而非简单的照搬。然而有些学者(Alsop等人,2005)则认为,理论框架优于一切,在理论框架内内定位教学的具体细节,应该是教师发展的基础。

而我们则更倾向于认为教师的工作性质决定了他们需要理论和实践相结合的培训方式(Darling-Hammond,2006)。下图展示了知识技能的分配框架结构(Bransford,2005):

Burn等人评论是这样评论这个框架结构的:

每一个维度所包含的不同方面的内容以及它们之间复杂的相互作用,使得新教师充分理解和掌握这个框架变得艰巨。Shulman(1986)提出如果教师要进行有效的教学,他们既需要对其学科有深入的了解,更需要知道如何向学生传递教授这一学科知识的知识。Shulman接着描述了他认为教师知识库中具有的七大类别:

1. 学科知识;

2. 教学法;

3. 课程知识;

4. 教学法内容知识;

5. 对学生的了解;

6. 对教育背景的了解;

7. 对教育的意义、目的和价值的理解

尽管这一提出于80年代末期的概念已经发生演变,但不管怎样变动,它都提供了一个能确定教师所需的知识方面的契机。在教学内容方面,包括教师如何支持学生学习和转换学科知识,包括对常见学习难点和学生容易犯的错误。学科内容知识被引入课堂中而教学内容知识又是从课堂发展中获得,两者相互影响,互相渗透。

而在教学法方面,新教师的教学法会知道的比较有限,但很快就能通过观察和讨论其他教师的教学, 互助,通过同事反馈等途径掌握。早期的教师职业发展的特点是通过不断积累经验,教学法和学科知识也在同时增加(Wellington and Ireson,2008)。该框架的益处在于,它简单明了的概述教师需要发展的因素。

然而对于想进一步发展学科教学知识的新教师来说会面临一些困难,例如:

1. 认为学科教学知识是这些知识中最重要的,需要几年的时间内才得到发展(Kerfoot 2009)

2. 发展学科教学知识是一个很艰难认知和表达的过程。因为学科知识其复杂的内部结构,而且学校则很少提供时间让学科教师描述讨论他们专业知识(Loughran 等人 2004)

3. 教师知识领域会出现问题,例如“生物学教师的知识与生物学家的知识有何不同”等。(Carlsen  2001)

4. 知识库不是独立的维度,它们内部是复杂的,并却高度关联

5. 学科教学知识是一个综合性的框架——它不区分哪个教师知识库或教师知识库的某部分最适合在学校中进行学科教学

Featured Research

Featured Research

  • Opportunities for bilingual teachers in the post pandemic era - New PGCE China Programme helps address career bottleneck
    15/06/20212021/06/15

    Opportunities for bilingual teachers in the post pandemic era后疫情时代中国双语教师的机遇

    Recently, Eurus Consulting, a professional firm focusing on education personnel services, compiled a report on the trends of bilingual teachers in Chi...

  • The Motivation Mystery - nine ways lead to Active Learning
    14/03/20212021/03/14

    The Motivation Mystery - Nine Methods to Encourage Active Learning揭秘孩子们学习的内驱力 - 主动学习的九大制胜法则

    How could a parent promote learning when their child appears disinterested and unengaged? How should teachers and parents work together to encourage a...

  • Crossing the Threshold: Enhancing opportunities for practical enquiry in school science through threshold concepts
    28/02/20212021/02/28

    Enhancing opportunities for practical enquiry in school science through threshold concepts打通学科教学中的“任督二脉”---阈值概念 (Threshold Concepts)

    Written by | Mark Deacon Edited by|BISE Threshold concepts are gateway concepts which once mastered offer routes to understanding other ideas. The...

  • Understanding The Complexities of Developing Beginning-Teacher Knowledge in a Partnership Setting
    02/02/20212021/02/02

    Develop beginning-teacher knowledge in a partnership setting with university通过学校与高校的合作建立新教师的“知识库”

    More and more bilingual schools have established partnerships with universities in order to create or improve their initial teachers training system...

  • Importance of Training Quality Mentors for ITT
    04/01/20212021/01/04

    Importance of Training Quality Mentors for ITT导师在新手教师培训中的重要性

    The writer for this article is Tracey Smith, Head of Primary School Teacher Training from the Faculty of Education, University of Buckingham. The Un...

  • Transforming Trauma in Classrooms
    11/12/20202020/12/11

    Transforming Trauma in Classrooms经典摘录|教师如何引导学生面对人类共同经历的创伤?

    We are living in such an era with so many uncertainties and changes that we need to expand the understanding of 'trauma'. In some sense,...

Click here to view our news archive