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11/12/20202020/12/11

Transforming Trauma in Classrooms经典摘录|教师如何引导学生面对人类共同经历的创伤?

Transforming Trauma in Classrooms

We are living in such an era with so many uncertainties and changes that we need to expand the understanding of 'trauma'. In some sense, we all have experienced the trauma of the existence of Covid-19. How shall our teachers lead the class to see and think of such 'losing of control' across the world? We hope to bring you some new food-for-thoughts in this selection from Laura Purser's Transforming Trauma. Laura Purser is the Head of Primary, Prep and EYFS, at the School of Education, University of Buckingham.

Transforming Trauma

Laura Purser
Head of Primary, Prep and EYFS, School of Education, University of Buckingham

With pupils going ‘back’ to school, a spotlight has been shone on the need for supporting child mental health. Something always prominent in our minds, but often pushed aside for the numerous demands of the packed curriculum and expectations to deliver progress in the form of attainment. Those who have always put best practice quality teaching and well-being ahead, have known the secret for a long time; that safe, contained and happy children learn and make effective progress. The parallel running pressures of making up for gaps and supporting the vulnerable with positive mental health, is a fine balancing act for teachers. Thoughtful and carefully managed transitions will allow schools to embrace a compassionate approach to the learning environment, where safety and reconnection is at the forefront of planning and re-engagement of pupils into authentic learning will be given the opportunity to thrive.

Barry Carpenter (2020) has designed the ‘Recovery Curriculum’ that promotes ‘a systematic, relationships-based approach to reigniting the flame of learning in each child’. It is a crafted framework of levers that highlight the importance of relationships, community, transparency of curriculum, metacognition and space to re-discover self and encourages planning opportunities for a child’s voice to be heard and validated.

Other organisations that highlight the need for promoting mental health and access to services for children is YoungMinds. Emma Thomas, CEO, believes that teachers do not have to be mental health experts and that by giving teachers the support to signpost, will help blend the insight of expertise of professionals in supporting vulnerable children.  Too few know where and how to get access to support, even when it is readily or more likely, scarcely available. Unfortunately lack of access to support services leads to the risk of trauma and bereavement.

Children are particularly vulnerable due to their inaccurate understanding of cause and effect, which means they are less able to anticipate danger and keep themselves safe and express their feelings. As professionals in education, we need to arm ourselves with the tools to engage in highly sensitive conversations related to bereavement and loss. We need to understand that adults and children have different styles of grief. I like to think of it as river and puddle jumping. Children jump in and out of grief through deep emotional responses that are brief and intense; whereas adults swim in deep rivers of pain that take time to wade through to the other side. Children have a lack of understanding of permanence and therefore the language we choose to use will impact on how they may process this abstract concept. We would have done well to navigate these challenging conversations if teachers can continue to build trust, tell the truth through simple language and avoid using metaphors. If we can, normalise the feelings and check that the child understands they are not to blame. If all else fails, authentic listening and reassurance can go a long way.

We may have heard or be a part of a ‘Trauma informed school’; this is the approach that teachers take in believing that a child’s actions are a direct result of their experiences. It may be a spring boarding off the adage that ‘behaviour is a communication’. Facilitating that when a child disengages or shows inappropriate behaviours, the teacher may ask themselves certain questions, such as ‘what has happened to you?’, rather than ‘what is wrong with you?’. Which could be perceived as intrinsically blaming the individual and reinforcing the perpetuating self-fulfilling prophecy. McInerney & McKlindon (2009), believe that by ‘being sensitive to students’ past and current experiences with trauma, educators can break the cycle of trauma, prevent re-traumatization, and engage a child in learning and finding success in school.’

It is key that as practitioners that we are aware of the possible impacts of trauma on mental health and ways we can support in our classrooms. For example, being aware of attachment, where teachers can provide a secondary secure ‘safe base’ to support insecurity. Awareness of anxiety and depression, at risk of forming from prolonged toxic stress and lack of agency. We also need to be open to the vulnerabilities of self-harm, exacerbated by lack of opportunity or skill to express difficult feelings with less distraction and more time to ruminate. Teachers on our PGCE courses are trained to be cognizant to individual differences and that pupils will display a vast array of behaviours that may be indicators that flag a need for further exploration and support e.g. anger, tantrums and self-blame, clinginess, presenting as withdrawn and anxious, demonstrating behaviours that are regressive and asking questions repeatedly. In particular, anger is often a mask for a multitude of emotions, and it may be that the tools we want to provide our pupils with, when dealing with trauma, are an emotional vocabulary to articulate the wave of emotions inside, rather than allowing them to fall back on overwhelming anger and aggression as a tool for ‘coping’.

By developing emotional literacy, naming and approaching a feeling with curiosity, we may be able to point those towards the perspective of transforming trauma into something for growth. Like the Kinsugi art form, perhaps we can view our cracks as a process of metamorphosis and embrace the art of precious scars, carved from our experiences of trauma.

By Laura Purser, School of Education, University of Buckingham

Laura is the Head of Primary, Prep and EYFS, PGCE Teacher Training https://www.buckingham.ac.uk/education/pgce/pgce-primary & also leads on SEN & Inclusion, Mental Health & Well-Being at The University of Buckingham. She has designed and leads the master’s level NASENCO course, training SENCOs for accreditation. (https://bit.ly/33CPoO9). Laura aspires to ensure that all Teacher and SENCO training develops quality inclusive practitioners who are person-centred to ensure positive outcomes for both learning and positive mental-health and well-being. https://bit.ly/2WIhxl8. – Blog ‘Navigating Your Internal Compass’.

References:

  • Carpenter, B. (2020) A Recovery Curriculum: Loss of Life for Our Children and Schools Post Pandemic. http://www.recoverycurriculum.org
  • Dweck, C.S. (2008) Mindset: The New Psychology of Success. New York, Random House
  • Kumai, C. (2018) Kintsugi Wellness: The Japanese Art of Nourishing Mind, Body, and Spirit, New York, Harper Collins
  • McInerney, M. and McKlindon, A (2014), Unlocking the Door to Learning: Trauma-Informed Classrooms & Transformational Schools. Education law center, pp.1-24.
  • Seligman, M. Ernst, R. Gillham, J. Reivich, K. Linkins, M. (2009) Positive education: positive psychology and classroom interventions, Oxford Review of Education, 35:3, 293-311, DOI: 10.1080/03054980902934563
  • Young Minds (2020) Coronavirus; the impact on young people with mental health needs. www.youngminds.org.uk

To read the full article, please visit https://educationblog.buckingham.ac.uk/2020/07/08/transforming-trauma-by-laura-purser/ 

“创伤”通常指一个人在经历烦恼或破坏性事件时所遭受的痛苦。而在这个动荡和变化的时代,我们对“创伤”一词的理解需要扩展。在某种意义上,我们都经历过 Covid-19(新冠病毒)的“创伤”。教师在课堂上如何把控这个全球范围内的话题?学校如何引导学生面对这一人类共同经历的失控场面?我们希望通过今天的文章给大家带来启发。作者Laura Purser是白金汉大学教育学院PGCE小学项目主管。

 

Transforming Trauma

作者:Laura Purser
白金汉大学教育学院PGCE小学项目主管

疫情后,随着学生返校,人们更加关注学生的心理健康。心理健康本来在教育者的头脑中是占据重要位置的,但因为大量的课程压力经常被推至一旁。那些总是把教学质量和学生健康放在首位的教师都会知道,心理健康对于学生安全、包容、学习和进步的长期效果。经过深思熟虑和精心管理的过渡将使学校获得一种富有同理心的学习环境,在这种环境中,安全和重新建立师生连接是最重要的,之后学生将有机会重新投入到学习中。

当我在为白金汉大学的PGCE培训课程研究创伤后应激障碍这个话题时,我突然意识到,在西方世界,我们默认某些东西受到了损害,就需要通过修复使它恢复到原来的状态。 修补我们自己和他人的缺点,使之变得更好;好像以前我们是完整的。当然,这可以看作是一个完全高尚和善意的理想。

然而有一些不同的理念,从其他角度展示创伤破碎视觉上和概念上的意义。金缮工艺是一种日本的艺术形式,用金色粘合剂对破碎的陶瓷进行可视性修复从而强调一种更胜之前的残缺美。伦纳德·科恩的歌词说,“每件事都有一个裂痕,光就是这样进来的”。当一个事物破碎了,它的改变是永远的。“形状、结构、形式和功能都可能受到影响,而它被重新组合起来,联结修复,化身成为如旧时般的一部分。完整完美被高估了,而东方人用最优雅和谦和的方式来传达什么是现实”(Candice Kumai)。侘寂美学*进一步展示了残缺和通过痛苦感知生命的美。我特别喜欢这样的想法:没有黑暗,光就不可能存在。

*侘寂美学:Wabi-sabi, 源自日本的美学主张,认可不完美主义的美丽。从老旧的事物外表下发现充满岁月的美;欣赏时光留下的痕迹。

恢复力强的人通常有从积极的角度看待世界的特质。例如,世上有消极的东西存在,但许多人选择关注其积极的一面。Seligman认为(2009)“学习和积极情绪的协同”是必要的,并认为“学校应该教授快乐的技能”。有多种实用方法,例如,睡前写下三件值得感激的事。我们的大脑在睡前会被设定成一个感恩和积极的姿态,通过这个重要的设定过程,我们从情感上整理和理解生活, 这也就是梦境的心理学表现。心理恢复力强人也不会沉溺于成为生活中发生的坏事的牺牲品。他们会避开了一些例如“为什么会发生在我身上?”的问题,而是进一步问自己“它能为我带来什么?”这可以与Dweck(2008)的提出的成长心态相比较。另一个他们可能会问自己的问题是,他们的行为选择是否在伤害自己?他们会思考自己的意识行为是否在控制范围内并思考这些行为是在帮助还是伤害自己。

Barry Carpenter(2020)设计了“康复课程”,提倡“以一种系统的、建立关系为基础的方法,重新点燃每个孩子的学习之火”。它是一个精心设计的杠杆框架,强调关系、团体、课程透明性、元认知(metacognitive)和重新发现自我的空间的重要性,并鼓励让孩子的声音被倾听和验证。

其它一些呼吁关注儿童心理健康并为其提供帮助和服务的机构,例如YoungMinds的首席执行官Emma Thomas认为,教师不必成为心理专家,通过给予指导,教师就会将支持儿童的专业知识融合于教学中。纵然有很多相关的研究与支持,但遗憾的是,太少有老师知道该如何获得帮助了,而这将导致创伤带来更大的影响。

配图说明:知其来处,晓其内蕴。佳士得纽约专场拍卖会上,收藏家的敬畏心和包容心让一只唐代小兔子(唐 白釉点黑彩兔)颠覆完美主义的审美理念,以32万美金落槌。伤痕背后的故事让盈盈一握的它成为稀世珍宝。

儿童尤其容易受到伤害,因为他们对因果关系的理解不准确,这意味着他们无法预见危险,保护自己和表达自己的感情。作为教育领域的专业人士,我们需要用工具武装自己,参与探讨失去身边的人或相关的高度敏感话题中。我们需要了解成人和儿童有不同的悲伤方式。我喜欢把它想象为河流和水坑,孩子们通过短暂且强烈的情绪反应在悲伤(的水坑)中跳来跳去;而成年人则在痛苦的深河中游泳,需要时间才能涉水到达另一边。儿童缺乏对永恒性的理解,因此我们选择的语言将影响他们如何处理这种抽象概念。如果教师们能持续建立信任,用简单的语言阐述事实,避免使用隐喻,就能很好地驾驭这些有挑战性的谈话。如果可以的话,让情绪正常化,确定孩子明白他们不会受到责备。如果所有的方法都失败了,倾听和安慰会有帮助。

我们可能听说或是参与过“创伤知情学校“,老师们相信孩子的行为是经历的直接结果。这可能是“行为是一种沟通”的新意。当孩子走神或做出不适当的行为时,教师可以问一些问题,例如“发生了?”而不是“你怎么了?’. 这可能潜意识里认为是责怪。McInerney&McLindon(2009)认为“对学生过去和现在的创伤经历保持敏感,教育者可以打破创伤的循环,防止二度创伤,让孩子参与学习,并取得成功。”

作为教师我们必须意识到创伤对心理健康可能产生的影响以及在课堂上支持的方式。例如,了解教师可以提供第二个“安全垒”来支持学生不安的依靠感,了解由于长期压力和缺乏压力抒发渠道产生的焦虑和压抑。我们还需要对自我伤害的形式保持开放,这种脆弱会因为不知如何表达而加剧。我们的PGCE课程的教师经过培训后,能够认识到个体差异,还能识别出学生表现出什么样的迹象时需要进一步的帮助和支持,例如愤怒、发脾气、自责、依附、表现孤僻和焦虑、倒退和反复提问等。值得注意的是,愤怒往往是多种情绪的面具,在处理创伤时,愤怒是一种情绪词汇,用来表达内心的情绪波动;而不是让他们借助压倒性的愤怒和攻击作为“应对”的工具。

通过培养情感表达,以好奇心探索,我们也许能将将创伤转化为成长,就像金缮工艺一样,也许我们可以把我们的裂痕看作一个蜕变的过程,拥抱我们的创伤经历中刻下的珍贵的伤疤。

参考文献:

  • Carpenter, B. (2020) A Recovery Curriculum: Loss of Life for Our Children and Schools Post Pandemic. http://www.recoverycurriculum.org
  • Dweck, C.S. (2008) Mindset: The New Psychology of Success. New York, Random House
  • Kumai, C. (2018) Kintsugi Wellness: The Japanese Art of Nourishing Mind, Body, and Spirit, New York, Harper Collins
  • McInerney, M. and McKlindon, A (2014), Unlocking the Door to Learning: Trauma-Informed Classrooms & Transformational Schools. Education law center, pp.1-24.
  • Seligman, M. Ernst, R. Gillham, J. Reivich, K. Linkins, M. (2009) Positive education: positive psychology and classroom interventions, Oxford Review of Education, 35:3, 293-311, DOI: 10.1080/03054980902934563
  • Young Minds (2020) Coronavirus; the impact on young people with mental health needs. www.youngminds.org.uk

阅读完整文章,请访问 https://educationblog.buckingham.ac.uk/2020/07/08/transforming-trauma-by-laura-purser/ 

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    Transforming Trauma in Classrooms经典摘录|教师如何引导学生面对人类共同经历的创伤?

    We are living in such an era with so many uncertainties and changes that we need to expand the understanding of 'trauma'. In some sense,...

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